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Wolf (Canis lupus)

The wolf is a mammal of the Dog family (Canidae).


General information

The anatomy of the wolf differs from that of the domestic dog in some features. The wolf typically has golden eyes, longer legs, larger paws, a more prominent jaw, a longer snout, and a brain that is typically 30% larger than the dog's. Wolves are about 66-80 cm tall at the shoulder and weigh about 25-52 kg, as the females are approximately 20% smaller than males. The length of the body is 1.0-1.5 m, of which 30-50 cm is the tail. The wolf’s figure is suitable for long running. Wolves have quite a narrow thorax, strong back and leg muscles. The coloring of wolves is usually gray to gray-brown. It often resembles the colors of the environment. Getting old, wolves acquire grayish nuance to their fur.



Wolves are spread almost all over the world, but mainly in North America, Eurasia and the Middle East. They live in a wide range of natural conditions - forests, tundra, taiga, plains and mountains. Wolves are social predators and hunt in packs organized into a strict social hierarchy and led by an alpha male and an alpha female.


Hunting and nutrition

The wolf is a predator. Its hunting methods range from surprise attacks to long chases. The wolves can chase large prey for hours, by interacting within the pack.


Life expectancy and breeding

Wolves live up to 6–9 years in the wild, but in closed environment reach up to 16 years on average. Usually only the alpha pair in the pack reproduces. Pairing takes place once a year, between January and April. An interesting fact about the social organization of wolves is that they are monogamous in general – the alpha pair only pairs with each other. The pregnancy lasts from 60 to 63 days. The cubs can be 6-7 on average. They are born blind and completely dependent on their mother. They consume food vomited by the adults until they are 45-day- old. They then eat meat brought by the pack members.

The females reach sexual maturity at the age of 2 and the males at the age of 3. Most wolves leave their home pack when they are 1-4-year-old.